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Academic Citation and Writing   Tags: bibliographies, citation  

Information on guides to citation and writing formats
Last Updated: Sep 9, 2017 URL: Print Guide

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About Academic Citation and Writing

This guide introduces a few of the academic style manuals used for writing, documenting, and publishing academic papers. The section called Guides to Citation lists works that provide general and subject-specific help with different documentation formats. Some of the more well-known of documentation formats are those used by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA), and those presented in the Chicago Manual of Style and A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, also known as Turabian citation style. All of the works included under Guides to Citation provide advice on writing and composition in addition to the information they provide on citation, but are most useful, and most commonly used, for help with footnotes, endnotes, bibliographies, and other documentation.

The section called Style Manuals presents those titles in the library's collection that are concerned with writing styles common to particular disciplines. The style manuals listed here contain information about writing composition, format for scientific illustrations and tables, use of art and music as evidence, and more. Some, but not all, provide information on style for bibliographies and footnotes.

The section called Citation Generators provides links to several web-based tools that help you draft citations for various kinds of materials in several different formats, usually Chicago, MLA, and APA styles. Some of the tools also help you track your research and keep notes on your work. For any of the citation generators, it's a good idea to proof the citations they draft.

To determine which style format to follow be sure to ask your professors which specific citation and style manuals they prefer. In some disciplines a variety of manuals may be considered as acceptable guides to format and style. For example, scholars of anthropology often follow the format proposed by the American Anthropological Association, but may also follow the format of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The library also has a guide to Citing Electronic Documents, which offers links to other helpful guides and examples for citing electronic resources. Again, it is vital to ask your professors what specific documentation style to use for electronic resources, as they may indicate a preference.

If you can not find a particular style manual or if you have any questions regarding citation format, ask a Reference Librarian for assistance. Note also that you can find help with documentation style at the Center for Teaching and Learning.

For a very quick summary of just a few citation styles and types, see this guide from the library on basic citations.


Honor Council and Honor Code

Lawrence is proud of its long-standing tradition of a student-run honor system. Potential violations include failing to distinguish carefully between one's own work and material from any other source (e.g., written materials, oral sources, web pages, or other data available through computer resources).

See these pages for more on the Honor Council and Honor Code.


Contact the Librarians

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Need Help?

The reference librarians are happy to assist you with your questions about citation. Contact us in person or use the link to ask a Reference Librarian.

The Center for Academic Success provides assistance with your writing questions. They can help you make a good paper great!


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